Welding and brazing are related to melting and joining two metals together by heat; that is why most people confuse them. To the average person, they seem like synonyms. sometimes people use the terms interchangeably because they almost refer to similar techniques but they are not the same. Some even call it “braze welding”; now this really makes us wonder if it is the same thing or two different phenomena. However, there are various differences between both welding and brazing. That is why we are here to clear out this confusion and make it easy for you to differentiate between the terminology, where they are used, and which one is better. Stay tuned!
Difference Between Welding And Brazing
The most significant difference between welding and brazing is the temperature. In both techniques, a filler is used that can be any metal like aluminum, copper-silver, silver, copper, nickel alloy, and many more. These fillers are melted between the gap of two metals to join them practically. Now the temperature at which they are melted defines which techniques are used. In brazing, the filler is melted at a lower temperature. A temperature that is a little higher than the soldering method but lower than the welding that’s why it is also called hard soldering.
To be more specific, if we take in numbers, so the soldering done above the temperature of 840 Fahrenheit or 450 celsius is considered as brazing or hard soldering. As for welding, the process occurs at a much higher temperature of about 50k Fahrenheit or 30k celsius. These temperatures differ because, in brazing, the filler used has a lower melting point than the adjoining metal, which is why low temperature can fulfill the job. However, in welding, the filler metal has higher melting points.
The other difference in brazing and welding is the tools used in both techniques. Brazing uses low temperature, so a hand torch or a furnace is enough for the needed heat. Other tools used in brazing are vacuum and induction. The tools used in welding where a constant and higher temperature is required are Arc, MIG, & TIG Welders. These different kinds of tools used in both brazing and welding make the sub-categories of both. Therefore, we name the types of brazing and welding based on the tools they use in the process.
Types of Brazing
- Torch brazing
- Silver brazing
- Furnace brazing
- Induction brazing
- Vacuum brazing
- Dip brazing
Types Of Welding
- Glass welding
- Electric resistance welding
- Gas tungsten arc welding
- Electroslag welding
- Oxy-fuel welding
- Plastic welding
- Submerged arc welding
Brazing can join dissimilar metals together, such as aluminum, silver, gold, copper, and nickel. While welding is only used to join similar metals together. Flux is commonly used in brazing. Flux is like a liquid substance that is used for wetting. It is a chemical used for cleaning. The flux is used over the metal part before brazing to make them stick together and clean the surface after the process. All in all, brazing uses the technique of capillary action. The filler metal is melted between the adjoining metals, and then flux is used to protect it more by the process of wetting.
In welding, the process of fusion is used. What is fusion? Fusion is the technique in which two metals of the same type and same melting points are treated with high temperatures. Both the metals melt simultaneously to make a molten pool that we call a weld pool with high temperatures. When the weld pool cools down, the two metals are practically joined and welded together. This process is so powerful that the welded part is stronger than the joining metals originally.
Which One Is Better Brazing Or Welding?
Both brazing and welding have their advantages and disadvantages. We can’t choose one over the other ultimately. If we talk in terms of which one is stronger, then it definitely is welding. The welding process joins the metal more effectively; it is more robust and works for almost a lifetime. At the same time, brazing joins the metal with lower strength. So welding is there for a standard sheet metal technique used because of its power; it is reliable. We see a lot of object in our daily life which are processed through the process of welding.
Talking of the heat distortion and finishing look, then, of course, brazing wins over the welding. Brazing leaves the final product metal clean; there is little or no need for a secondary operation to clean out the residual stress. In contrast, in welding, you require post-processing heat to remove the residual stress. As brazing uses lower temperatures, so there is little heat distortion and residual stress. Welding, on the other hand, has higher thermal distortion because of the high temperature it uses.
The other plus point about brazing is that it can join dissimilar metals. Brazing is perfect for thin metals, so if you need to fix something light and thin, you can rely on brazing as it will not damage the material in the process. For thin metals, if you use welding, it might melt down the parts which aren’t supposed to be melted and ruin it. However, welding has its benefits, too; it might just join similar metals in nature, but the strength it provides to the joined metal is immense. Heavy metal parts can be welded easily with high temperatures throughout welding techniques, and they will stay solid and sound for a more extended time. Welding, therefore, is used in the parts of an airplane or other heavy equipment.